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AROS Documentation Manual

Waarschuwing

This document is not finished! It is highly likely that many parts are out-of-date, contain incorrect information, or are simply missing altogether. If you want to help rectify this, please contact us.

This manual describes the AROS documentation system. It is intended to be read by documentation writers as well as developers wishing to extend, or tinker with, the system itself. To this end, the manual is split into three parts: a common introduction to the system, a description of how to use it for writing documentation, and technical notes and specifications. Apart from information about using the system itself, the second chapter also contains some general guidelines to follow when writing documentation for AROS.

Introduction

Documentation is vital for the any project, making it useful. Usually, in a project with such a limited developer efforts as ours, documentation is "significantly delayed". Also, most of programmers aren't that good at writing documentation, thus that what is indeed written often isn't all that readable. It's necessary to combine the efforts of developers and users in documenting to reach the goal of an "AROS Ultimate Documentation". So, if you happen to know a user who could help out ... now is the time! =)

FIXME: Write more?

Writing documentation

The documentation format we use is reStructuredText (or ReST for short) as specified by the Docutils Project. ReST is an easy to read and write, what-you-see-is-what-you-get, extensible, plain-text mark-up syntax.

You can describe it as a hybrid between an implicit mark-up syntax and an explicit mark-up syntax, which makes it easy to learn and highly readable while still being powerful and extensible. The Introduction to reStructuredText contains some good points about the goals of the syntax.

Since the format is basically plain-text, it is very easy to learn by simply inspecting existing documentation and using some common sense, but nevertheless it is recommended to at least quickly read through the ReStructuredText Primer before starting to work on AROS documentation.

For more information about the format, the following document is recommended for reading:

The documentation archive

In order to change or write documentation you need a checkout of the subversion archive 'documentation'. The archive contains:

  • some common documents, like contact.en, links.en, etc.
  • a directory 'db' with some database facts about the project
  • a directory 'documentation' with user and developer documentation
  • a directory 'images' with images used on our pages, like banners and logos. This directory must be in place, because the scripts look for images here.
  • a directory 'introduction' with an introduction to the project, found in the relevant menu of a website
  • a 'misc' directory with some additional stuff
  • a directory 'news' with the news updates which you see on the main page. Filenames in news/data have format of YYYYMMDD.<suffix>
  • a directory 'pictures' with some images related to developers' photos and a screenshot gallery
  • a directory 'scripts' with the scripts used to build the HTML and WWW targets
  • a directory 'targets' with additional files needed to build targets
  • ...

Opmerking

Both the Subversion archive and the included directory with the user and developer manuals have the name 'documentation'. Don't mix them up.

Subdirectories

It's possible to create additional directories in 'documentation/users' and 'documentation/developers'. The build system recursively scans the subdirectories. It is recommended that you create a file 'index.en' in any new directory.

Internationalization

The build system supports internationalization for the 'www' target. To make this possible, every document filename should have a language suffix appended (e.g. commands.en). Currently there is support for English (.en), German (.de), Finnish (.fi), Italian (.it), Russian (.ru), Swedish (.sv) and Dutch (.nl). If you wish to translate documentation into more languages then please contact us via the website mailing list.

When you create a link to a document, you have to omit the suffix (e.g `Commands <user/commands>`_). But if you use the 'include' directive for translated documents, you must keep the suffix.

The build system uses the English version when no translated page is available.

Sample code

The directory 'documentation/developers/samplecode' is for source code examples. The content is copied unmodified to the targets.

Pictures

The names and paths of the pictures are hard-coded in the python script 'buildit.py'. If you want to add pictures you have to change the script. Feel free to make a feature request in the developer mailing list if you want this to be changed.

Autodocs

Autodocs are a method to embed documentation in source code. It is mainly used for Shell commands and functions of runtime and linker libraries.

The rules for an autodoc block are:

  • Block must start with a slash and at least 6 stars. (it's usually a line with 77 stars.)

  • Block ends with at least 7 stars. (again usually 77 stars.)

  • You can find the rules for documenting library functions in the document about system development.

  • Autodocs for Shell functions are similar. Here is an example for the function "Alias":

    /*****************************************************************************
    
        NAME
    
            Alias
    
        SYNOPSIS
    
            NAME,STRING/F
    
        LOCATION
    
            Sys:c
    
        FUNCTION
    
            Alias allows you to create an alternate name for other DOS commands.
            If Alias is used with no parameters, it will display the current
            list of Aliases defined within the current shell.
    
            Using a pair of square brackets within an alias allows you to
            provide the 'new' dos command with parameters.
    
            If no parameters are specified, the current list of aliases are
            displayed.
    
        INPUTS
    
            NAME    - The name of the alias to set.
    
            STRING  - The value of the alias NAME.
    
        RESULT
    
            Standard DOS error codes.
    
        NOTES
    
        EXAMPLE
    
            Alias DF "Type [] number"
    
                By typing "DF S:Shell-Startup" in the shell, you are actually
                executing the command "Type S:Shell-Startup number". This will
                display the contents of the S:Shell-Startup file in the shell
                with line numbers on the left hand side.
    
        BUGS
    
        SEE ALSO
    
            Unalias
    
        INTERNALS
    
    ******************************************************************************/
    
  • The titles (NAME, SYNOPSIS, etc.) must be written in upper case and must start at column 5.

  • The text blocks should start at column 9.

  • If you want to mark a function as internal put the letter "i" somewhere within the first 6 stars in the initial comment line. This way the autodoc is ignored by the build script.

  • The "SEE ALSO" chapter is parsed and hyperlinks are created. The rules are:

    • The entries must be separated by comma or newline.
    • A solitary name is interpreted as Shell command.
    • A name with round brackets (e.g. "Draw()") is interpreted as function which exists in the same library.
    • An entry like "exec.library/FreeMem()" causes a link to the document of the given library.
    • A path which ends with ".h" (e.g. "graphics/bitmap.h") is turned into a link to a header file.
    • Anything else is just interpreted as plain text.

The autodocs are translated to the ReST format by the script "autodoc.py". This script can be called from the main build script like this:

./build alldocs

The script must have access to the AROS source code. Thus the AROS sources and the documentation archive must be checked out like this:

AROS
    ...
    workbench
    ...
    documentation
        scripts

Commit

Before you commit the new or modified documents you should build both the HTML and WWW targets locally. Look for error messages and fix them. Check the result in a web browser. Normally, the changes are applied to http://aros.sourceforge.net/ within one day after a commit.

Style guide

  • Be consistent.
  • Enable 8 bit character sets like ISO8859-1 in your text editor.
  • Don't use slang abbreviations, like "apps", "docs".
  • For apostrophes use only ' (decimal ASCII code 39). Don't use accent characters for this.
  • Insert line breaks. Don't make lines longer than 80 characters.

Technical notes

Databases

There are several small databases, which you can find in the db directory, all of which are plain text files but using a couple of slightly different formats. This is mostly a historical artefact and should perhaps be rectified in the future, but for now it's easiest to keep them as-is.

credits

This is a list of people which have contributed to AROS. The build system first creates the file 'credits.en'. This file is used for both WWW and HTML targets. Please note that you also have to change the file workbench/system/AboutAROS/db/credits in the AROS repository.

quotes

Remarkable quotes of AROS celebrities. The format is spell;author. The build system copies this file to the WWW target.

mirrors

Since AROS is hosted on Sourceforge there aren't any mirrors. This file is ignored by the build system.

tasks

TO-DO database. This file hasn't been maintained for a long time and isn't used for the targets.

Sizes

The files aros.size and contrib.size aren't used any more and will probably be deleted.

Building

Requirements

You will need the following to build the AROS documentation from scratch:

To build the website you will additionally need:

MacOS X comes with Python pre-installed, but to build the website you will need:

Setting up

Before you can start building the documentation, there might be some set-up required if the needed version of the Python interpreter is not named "python" on your system. If it is, you can simply skip this section.

First, copy the default settings:

% cd AROS/documentation/scripts/config
% cp defaults user

Next, edit the user file and make sure that the variables are correct for your system. An example configuration file might look like this:

PYTHON=python

PYTHON indicates the name of the Python interpreter; it may also be an absolute path if you don't have it in the search path. You might need to set it to python2 or python2.2 on some systems.

Targets

Two targets are currently supported:

  • www

    This target generates the AROS website which includes all documentation, the news, picture galleries with thumbnails and status information. The documentation will integrate nicely with the rest of the site.

  • html

    This target generates standalone HTML from the documentation, suitable for offline viewing and inclusion into documentation packages.

Procedure

To build a specific target, simply invoke the build script with the target name as the first argument. The current directory needs to be the root of the documentation tree. For example, to build the website do:

> cd AROS/documentation
> ./build www

If you want to build the standalone HTML documentation:

> cd AROS/documentation
> ./build html

Tip: adding a language suffix (e.g. en, fi or it) after the target name generates only pages for that given language. All missing or non-translated pages are off course still substituted with their English counterparts. This results in strongly decreased compile times.

> cd AROS/documentation
> ./build www fi

The generated files will be put in ../bin/documentation/<target-name>, e.g. ../bin/documentation/www for the www target. Specific language files are put into ../bin/documentation/<target-name>/<language-name>.

Additionally, there is a clean target, which will delete the entire ../bin/documentation directory.

Opmerking

Currently, you can't use a read-only file system for the source directories, as quite many intermediate files are generated there. If you've checked out the sources from SVN there's no need to worry: the generated files are ignored as appropriate.


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