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AROS User's Guide

Warning

This is a document in progress! It is highly likely that some parts contain incorrect information or are simply missing altogether. If you want to help rectify this, please contact us.

Introduction

This is the AROS Research Operating System User's Guide. It is meant to get people used to AROS. It is for everybody interested in AROS, as it tries to provide information on AROS on different levels of advancedness. It should cover everything in sufficient depth, but in such a way that you don't have to learn what you don't want to learn.

Who should read this guide?

This guide will help you getting used to AROS. It is written for everybody who is interested in AROS. Keep in mind that you are actually using software that is BETA and in research. It is currently mostly fun to play with and cool to program for and program in. So your interest in AROS hopefully is explained by one of these reasons. If you came here because you thought AROS was a Multimedia, Internet-Ready, Etc. OS, you might be right, but it is not finished, so you need to be patient. If you thought AROS was a Grapefruit-Machine or a Free Money Project, you are entirely in the wrong place.

How you should read this guide?

This guide is ordered from "simple" to "advanced". You can start reading at any chapter that contains information that is new to you. But maybe even more important, you can, and should, stop reading at any chapter that contains information going beyond your interest. In this way you can teach yourself the advanced topics starting from scratch, or you can stop earlier if you think you only want to use AROS, and not program it. People with an Amiga background can skip the introduction, and start at "Developing for the AROS platform" if they never programmed an Amiga before, or go directly to "Developing inside AROS" if they already did. This way, there's a starting point and a stopping point for everyone.

It is important to realize that this guide is meant for AROS, not Amiga. So even if you owned an Amiga for years, you might need to read "Using AROS" too. This is not an embarrassment: you will notice that using AROS is very slightly different from using AmigaOS. This is because our Workbench is not finished. At the moment the system mostly works through a AmigaDOS shell - replacement (or CLI to older users). We do have a Workbench and you can navigate disks and launch the applications with it, however file operations is not yet complete. Amiga programmers should read "differences with Amiga programming" to get an overview of the differences.

Using AROS

AROS-hosted: An Operating System in an Operating System?

AROS is originally developed on Linux running on an Intel-based computer. It runs on many more machines and operating systems, though. This may sound strange: an OS running on top of an other OS, that's emulation, right?

A nice term for what AROS-hosted does is "API emulation". API is a three-letter acronym for Application Programmer's Interface. In plain English: an API provides (C Language) functions that a programmer can use. The AmigaOS API consists of a load of library calls that an Amiga programmer can use to make an Amiga program. AROS emulates the AmigaOS API: it tries to provide the same library calls as AmigaOS. An Amiga emulator, such as UAE; emulates the Amiga computer: the processor, the connected hardware, everything. This has its advantages, like being able to play binary Amiga games on different hardware, and its disadvantages, like not being able to use the emulator as a "real" OS, on a "real" processor. AROS-hosted runs on the "real" processor. But it isn't a "real" OS, unless you run in such a way that it doesn't require Linux. This is called "native" AROS.

AROS can run natively on the Intel and Amiga computers, but not quite as well as it runs on Linux. AROS library functions are made to run under Linux first, internally using Linux kernel and library calls. This way a programmer has the opportunity to bother about the implementation of the whole system first, and to bother about the technical details in a later stadium. People are currently working on making the "native" AROS more usable. The results are very impressive and it is perfectly possible to use AROS-native as a real (and only) Operating system on an IBM PC compatible machine.

Of course, AROS is not only an API emulator. It also tries to provide replacements to all the AmigaOS 3.1 system software, and you will also find a few demo's and games being shipped with AROS, just to show that they work - we might just be at 77% of the whole system, but we already have Quake running!

Using "native" AROS on i386

Native AROS is currently under heavy development. If you want to see cool tricks, try AROS on Linux. But if you're (also) interested in what a great job the programmers have done, you can try "native" too.

The instructions for installing native AROS are varying depending on which platform you use. Because "native" is still in great development, the results from installing native AROS can also vary depending on the age of the code that you use.

On i386 there are different booting media available. The first and most useful binaries set is an AROS LiveCD which you can get in the Downloads section. It can be either a snapshot or a nightly build (the former is more stable but will be outdated, the latter has the latest changes made but can be unstable in rare cases). The second is the AROS boot floppy, which is intended to boot systems that are unable to boot from CD. It has a small size, but therefore has only a minimal set of features. If you have no CD drive it still can show some parts of AROS to you.

TO create the AROS LiveCD, you first download its archive. You then unpack it and write the ISO image to a CD-R(W). If you intent to use AROS in a virtual machine, you can use the ISO image as-is. Once the disc is ready, you can reboot your PC with the LiveCD. If your system does not support booting from CD, also download and write the AROS boot floppy to disk (with Rawrite or Winimage, for example) and boot from it, leaving the CD in the drive. Booting will then continue with the CD. In either case, after the CD is booted you will find yourself in AROS (it is looks stunningly close to AmigaOS). You can fool around the LiveCD with the Wanderer (or with the Shell), play some games/demo's included as contributed programs on the CD, look at system basics until you get bored. It's also possible to add files to the ISO image and get some extra software written for AROS, and rewrite the LiveCD. For now, here ends the simple part of using an AROS-native.

To test all other features it's required to install the system to the hard disk (real or virtual). This process must be still treated as experimental. It has been described in Installation Doc. Anyway, remember that work continues and soon you'll be able to get more from native AROS!

Using "native" AROS i386 in Virtual Machines

Currently the Virtualization technologies are developed to an almost complete real machine replacement, have been burned-on by the increasing CPU speeds. You can make a "virtual" machine inside of your system ("host") and launch AROS on it, without being worried about any failures and relaunching the "guest" system quickly if something has happened.

There's a number of free virtual machine packages, best known are QEMU (Free, Open Source, for many host systems), VMWare Player (Free. There's also a full VMWare server for free that requires a free serial) and Microsoft VPC (Free). You can get a version for your "host" system that suits your needs. Below follow some tips on launching AROS for different VM's.

Instead of having almost the same AROS set-up inside the VM's, there's a difference in setting the VM itself.

VM for Linux/FreeBSD

QEMU on Linux is quite easy to set up. All you need is to apt-get the package on Debian/Ubuntu/Knoppix/DSL or use any other package manager for other distributions or download and unpack the archive manually. You can get the archive from the QEMU Website.

Also there's an VMware VM available for Linux. Check the VMWare website.

VM for Windows

QEMU on Windows is almost the same thing as on Linux. The difference is in networking and some other issues. You can find useful information and packages on QEMU On Windows page . Also there's nice GUI for QEMU called QEMU Manager, including the QEMU and KQEMU package. There are also some GUI's for QEMU for some systems, which can be found in the links section.

QEMU must be launched as a console application with some parameters given. To use the options reviewed in the sections below, you must append them to your launch string (or a script).

Note

QEMU is a fast virtualiser, but its speed can be increased by installing the KQEMU kernel module (and appending the -kernel-kqemu option if in Windows). But remember that KQEMU can make the guest system unstable. You're advised not to use the Alt+Tab combination to free a keyboard lock, but rather to use Ctrl+Alt, as otherwise Tab key may remain pressed and thus may damage a currently edited file.

Still, VMWare or VPC is even easier to set up. All you need to do is to install some virtual hardware, like a network and a sound card, and create a virtual hard disk. Everything is managed by a simple GUI.

VM for MacOS

The only option available for PowerPC Macs running OS 9 or 10.x is Virtual PC, an i386 emulator. It does not support Intel Macs, however. And this VPC is a commercial product, and hence quite expensive. An alternative method to get it is to purchase Office 2004, which comes with a free copy of the latest version (VPC 7). Note that the Mac VPC is essentially an emulator, with limited speed and it requires a reasonable fast PowerPC machine (see the website for more details).

For Intel Macs (OS X) QEMU has been ported and subsequently renamed Q . It comes as an Intel binary and is freeware. Q does not support direct virtualisation yet (nor the i386 kernel acceleration module), making it achieve only part of the possible speed at the moment.

Another (upcoming) choice for VM on Intel will be the VMWare Fusion virtualiser, expected for release early 2007. Beta version 33141 already supports booting the AROS LiveCD, on condition that floppy drive support is disabled in the GRUB boot parameters (Just highlight your selection on the GRUB menu, press e twice, add nofdc to the command line, press return, then b. If you've installed to hard disk, you can change this permanently in the menu.lst file).

Yet another Intel Mac VM product is Parallels, a commercial product, though at a far lesser cost than VPC. Please note, however, that it as yet fails to boot AROS. The same applies to at least PC Parallels Workstation 2.1.

Note

Users of (early) Mac Intel notebooks whose machines run relatively hot may benefit from using the SMC fan control utility. It allows adjustment of fan speeds for increased ventilation of your machine, keeping temperatures low during heavy workloads. While it is considered safe to use, still consider the risks involved!

Virtual Disk Images

If you considered to try installing AROS to a virtual machine's HD, you can create the virtual hard disk for QEMU using the qemu-img program (replace <size> with needed size in bytes, M or G for mega- or giga-) with a command like:

qemu-img create -f qcow aros.img <size>

A set of pre-installed disk images is available to make running AROS under VM a bit easier. VmwAROS and WinAROS are the preinstalled AROS environments installed on a HD image for the virtual machines VMWare and QEMU, which are freely available on the net. VmwAROS is targeted for wide user audience. WinAROS can be especially helpful to the developers.

Using the AfA on m68k

On an Amiga (m68k), you can place the native code somewhere on your hard disk, double-click the "boot" icon, do a reset and enjoy a complete Amiga system. This is because it is not really native. The boot program just temporarily replaces a few AmigaOS libraries with AROS libraries. For testing purposes this is of course good, but in the end you still run good ol' AmigaOS and not plain native AROS. This will change as we build a more complete 68k AROS system. This system is often called AfA (AROS for Amigas).

Using AROS hosted on Linux or FreeBSD

Once you got the binaries for your system, either by compiling or by downloading pre-compiled binaries, you should go down into the "bin/$TARGET/AROS/boot" directory, where $TARGET is your system target (something like "linux-i386"). Run the file "AROSBootstrap" ("./AROSBootstrap"). The Workbench replacement "Wanderer" will be started.

There are some command line options for the AROS executable that could be used. You can get this list with ./AROSBootstrap -h:

AROS for Linux
usage: ./AROSBootstrap [options]
 -h                 show this page
 -m <size>          allocate <size> Megabytes of memory for AROS
 -c <file>          read configuration from <file>
                    (default is boot/AROSBootstrap.conf)
 --help             same as '-h'
 --memsize <size>   same as '-m <size>'
 --config <file>    same as '-c <file>'

You may have to add some more memory for hosted AROS with -m option to made some programs working properly.

Because "Wanderer" is very limited, you'll prefer to work with the Shell. Start it by selecting the menu "Wanderer" and then the option "Shell". Now you can type in commands. An important command is "dir": it will show you a directory's contents. The directory named "C" contains all the commands, so it might be useful to display its contents with "dir c:". The shell behaves like an AmigaDOS shell, and the commands in "C" behave like their AmigaDOS equivalents. (Note to Unix folks: to address the parent directory, use "/" and not "..": the latter would look rather ugly because AROS sees Unix' ".." as a normal directory name. You shouldn't use "./" as a prefix to address a command within the current directory either, but just skip that prefix instead.) Once you are used to it, try to execute a few programs (especially the "Demos" and "Games") to get an impression of AROS' capabilities.

AROS Basics

AROS Zune GUI Basics

The abbreviation GUI stands for Graphical User Interface, and is applied to all the graphical means used by OS to interact with user, other than the plain command-line interface (CLI). For those who never have used any OS from the Amiga branch, it will be useful to give some GUI basics for such systems to help them. These basics are the subject of this section, although part of the section will be AROS-specific.

An Amiga system uses specific and common principles, as you'll already have noticed. First, it uses menu bars, but the menu bar of any application isn't attached to its window - it's always at the top of the screen, where it can be easily accessed. To do this, select window you need, and move mouse pointer to upper side of a screen. Then, if you press right mouse button there, you can see the pull-down menu, representing your application's options. As the screen usually has a backdrop window for Wanderer, if no other window is selected you'll probably see the Wanderer menus in the menu bar.

Now, consider the desktop, which - as was mentioned before - is called "Wanderer". But what exactly is that "Wanderer"? Well, Wanderer is an application, just like all others. Specifically, it's an AROS file manager, allowing you to choose and operate files (the functionality isn't complete yet), to launch programs, to get some system information, to launch a Shell (window) and to perform certain other actions. Usually it opens on a wide screen and acts as your desktop (icons on this desktop represents the volumes and disks you can work with). It can be removed from the backdrop by deselecting the "Backdrop" option, which can be found in its Wanderer menu (which was mentioned in the previous paragraph). This will make Wanderer just another window you can move, resize, etc. This is somewhat different from desktops of other systems, that usually are fixed in their place. Of course, you can even decide not to use the Wanderer at all, and use instead your preferred file manager (e.g. Directory Opus).

But how do the applications behave then; where will the windows be opened? This is where the concept of a "screen" is introduced. A "screen" is the place where your window is meant to open. If an application is described as "opening on the Wanderer screen", it will look like what usually happens in other OS-s - your application will appear as a window on the desktop. On another hand, the window can "open on its own screen" - it looks like it captures the whole screen. It hasn't; it has opened a new "screen" of its own in front of the Wanderer screen, and it now obscures the desktop. You can, however, switch the screens with the "depth gadget", the graphic in the top right corner of the screen. So, if you wish, you can switch between Wanderer, Directory Opus, and any other applications opening on their own screens. This behaviour also comes from the Amiga's history.

Now a few words on the windows themselves. AROS windows usually have "gadgets", control buttons to manipulate them with. The first one, in the top left corner of a window, is the "close Gadget"; it allows you to close the window. The next, on the right, is the "size gadget", which allows minimising and maximising the window. And the last, in the top right corner again, is the "depth gadget", which allows moving the window to the front or to the back, just like when switching screens. Some windows may not have gadgets at all - look at the Kitty demo; it doesn't even show a border, and yet has a well-curved shape - or have a different set of gadgets.

The window's contents usually consist of elements that could be seen in any GUI - buttons, lists, strings of text, any other kind of gadgets. If an application is intended to change any preferences of a subsystem or an application, it's usual called Pref for short. Such a Pref has a specific extra set of buttons. Usually these buttons are: TEST (apply all the changes made by Pref, but don't save the changes and don't close the window), SAVE (apply and save the changes and close the window), USE (apply the changes and close the window, but don't save the changes), CANCEL (discard all the changes and close the window).

Some remarks on names:: It helps to know that, again from the Amiga's history, the file placement unit is often called a "drawer", rather than a "folder" or "directory" on other systems, but its meaning remains the same. Imagine a large workbench: a worktop and drawers below it. Translate it as "a directory" if you're uncertain.

There are special keys in AROS, just like on the original Amiga, used for quick commands. On a PC keyboard, Left and Right WinKey are used for the original Amiga keys "Left Amiga" and "Right Amiga". They are used in different combinations to launch commands.

Another unknown name you may encounter in AROS is "Zune". Zune is a GUI toolkit developed as replacement for MUI (Magic User Interface), widely used on Amigas. There is no explicit application called "Zune", but you can find Zune Pref, which allows you to set settings for Zune-based applications in general, or for a single application in particular. For example, to set Zune preferences for Wanderer you can select "GUI prefs" from Wanderer's menu. Or to set Zune prefs for other applications you can use it as a CLI command: Zune <application filename>.

To be finished...

AROS CLI (Command Line Interface)

To-do - CLI commands abstract and comparison ...

AROS has its CLI, the Command Line Interface, greatly expanding the capabilities of the OS. Those who have used AmigaOS will notice that it looks pretty close to the CLI of AmigaDOS. Some CLI basics are described in introduction to CLI commands.

You no longer need to type all the commands to the end - now there's a neat tabulator completion similar to that on Linux consoles. This allows you also to append filenames or choose them from a list.

To be finished...

AROS System programs

Several applications have been mentioned in passing before, but here is a description of their functions. AROS system applications are collected in separate directories:

  • C - the location of all the system commands used in the CLI
  • Classes - the place for datatypes, gadgets images and Zune classes
  • Devs - where the device-related files (drivers, keymaps) and datatypes are placed
  • Extras - where all the contributed programs reside
  • Fonts - here you can find all of the system fonts. Any additional fonts must be appended (assigned) to this directory.
  • Libs - where the system libraries are located.
  • Locale - holds catalog files of various AROS applications translations
  • Prefs - has a number of preferences-setting programs
  • S - contains some system launch-time scripts
  • System - the place for certain system controls
  • Tools - the location for commonly used system applications
  • Utilities - the place for not-so-commonly used but still useful applications

Another kind of AROS applications are the Commodities. These are applications which can help you make your system more comfortable. For example, AROS windows don't come to the front when you click on them, and if you find this uncomfortable, you can use the AROS commodity ClickToFront to change that. That commodity can be found among other commodities in SYS:Tools/Commodities directory. When you double-click on it, a window will come to the front if double-clicked. Another example is Opaque commodity - it allows you to move windows with their contents showing while it moves. There's also an Exchange commodity which allows you to manipulate launched commodities and get information about them. Usually commodities don't open any windows. To stop them, simply double-click them again.

To operate with files of different types, Amiga-like systems are using datatypes. A datatype is a kind of system library which allows the programs to read or/and write such files without having to bother about the implementation of such formats.

Again some terms need explaining: AROS uses handlers to communicate with the file systems, and HIDDs to communicate with the hardware.

To be finished...

Customising the installed AROS

Setting up the Locale

AROS is becoming a really international system this days, being translated to many languages. Translating isn't very difficult, and the number of the AROS translators is still increasing. If Unicode support will be implemented it can be translated in every language people use. If you feel you can give AROS to your country, both OS and documentation, do not hesitate to contact us and offer your help.

So, about the language. First, depending on available fonts you must set fonts by launching SYS:Prefs/Fonts and designating Fonts to different system text: Icons (used for icons labels), Screen (used on common screen) and System (used in CLI window). If your language uses a character set different from ISO (for example, Cyrillic CP-1251) these must be the fonts for the correct codepage. AROS currently can use two kinds of fonts - the Amiga bitmap fonts (which can be used directly) and TrueType (via the FreeType 2 manager, which still has some issues with non-ISO codepages). Bitmap fonts are in any particular codepage, and TTF can be Unicode.

How can you change the AROS locale? To do this you need to launch the Locale pref in SYS:Prefs. You can see a list of supported locales there and select your preferred ones. On the second page of this Pref you can select the country used (it gives correct currency and date/time format). And the last tab allows you to change the computer's time zone to that used in your location.

After you've made changes to fonts, reboot the system, and you must be able to see all the translated content.

So now you can read, but can you also write in your language? To do this, you'll have to change the keyboard layout.

Keyboard and mouse settings are managed by the Input pref. You can change the layout and click Use but we can do even better. This tool allows you also to save presets - just like any application it's got a menu, allowing you to save your preferences to a file, to keep different settings of locales. We will use it later to switch our keyboard layouts. Choose your locale's keyboard layout from the list and make a left click to open the context menu. Then enter the name of your preset to File string, say, locale1 and click Ok to save it to SYS:Prefs/Presets directory. Now choose an American (PC) layout and repeat the saving presets, say, with name English. This presets can be used later to switch the layouts. Click Cancel to exit.

There's an FKey commodity which allows you to make actions assigned to some combinations of keys. Launch it to assign the locale switching. After you double-click on FKey icon, launch the Exchange, choose the FKey from list and click the Show button. This will invoke the FKey window. You can see the ALT TAB in list assigned to window switching. Now enter the first key combination, say, ALT Z and go to the right panel. Choose Launch the program from pull-down menu and enter SYS:Prefs/Input as an argument. Append the USE switch and english preset name to the string as shown:

SYS:Prefs/Input USE SYS:Prefs/Presets/english

Click on the New Button to add another combination. Now set a different key combination for your locale the same way, except that you replace english with your preset name. Click New button again and then Save Settings. Now you can use the defined key combinations to switch the keyboard layouts.

Installing the software

Actually there's no installer system in AROS. Installing an application usually means you have to extract it to some directory on a hard disk or RAM disk. Then some programs require you to make assignments, which you can do in the CLI with the Assign command, and some start script additions. For example - to work properly, Lunapaint needs Lunapaint: to be assigned to the directory it was extracted to. You can do this with the command

Assign Lunapaint: Disk:Path/Lunapaint

But if you don't want to type this command after reboot when you want to start Lunapaint again, you'll need to put it into the S:User-Startup script. To do this, type this command in CLI prompt:

:> edit S:User-Startup

Then insert the Lunapaint (or other program) assign at the end of the file. (If the name of the assign is rather cryptic, it's wise to add a comment to remind you of the program it belongs to.) Save the changes and that's set. Such a procedure can be used for any program that needs it.

Another way is to use the ENVARC:SYS/Packages directory. All you need here is to create a text file with the name of your application, with in that file the a path to that application. Then create a directory named S in the program's directory and put the package start-up file there. This way is safer, but it's different from the style of the Amiga.

Setting up the Network

To communicate with other computers on network, AROS uses a TCP Stack, AROSTCP, which is a port of AmiTCP. This software is located in the SYS:System/Network/AROSTCP directory. Setting up is not easy but a GUI tool is being developed. Do note that there actually are very few networking programs on AROS, as yet (but some interesting tools are in development, soon to be released).

First you need is to set up the side of your machine of the network. This part can differ depending on your hardware. On a real machine you need to install the supported network interface card (NIC) and plug the cable in. On a virtual machine you should set up its NIC implementation and check if it's supported by AROS (at least the QEMU and VMWare ones are supported).

Net on QEMU/Linux

Read the tips for launching AROS on Linux QEMU above. After it's functional, continue with the second part.

That second part is to set up AROSTCP in AROS to work. On a Linux system some steps need to be done to get the network in VM to work. You'll need to be root for several of those-

The tun (tunnel) module must be loaded:

#> modprobe tun

Then, the kernel must become a router:

#> echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Then, a rule must be added to the firewall:

#> iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

Finally, while still being root, start QEMU with:

#> qemu -cdrom aros.iso -m 48

The Linux tun module, by default, creates a gateway for the fake network at 172.20.0.0/16 with a gateway at 172.20.0.1. Say our QEMU hosted machine is at 172.20.0.10. Say your usual LAN is 192.168.0.0/24 with a DNS at 192.168.0.1 (or anywhere on the Internet, for that matter).

For QEMU on Windows in user mode networking you must replace it with 10.0.2.16 for host and 10.0.2.2 for gateway, or use TAP adapter, which is better. Remember to set up your firewall in way it can pass the QEMU packets.

You have to edit 3 files in the SYS:System/Network/AROSTCP/db drawer: hosts, interfaces and netdb-myhost.

  • In hosts remove or comment out all entries. Hosts will be in netdb-myhost for now.

  • In interfaces uncomment the prm-rtl8029.device line (QEMU is emulating this NIC among others, you can use pcnet32.device for VMWare), edit it (change an IP= string to which was above):

    eth0 DEV=DEVS:networks/prm-rtl8029.device UNIT=0 NOTRACKING IP=172.20.0.10 UP
    
  • In netdb-myhost, add the various local known hosts, your local domain name, the gateway:

    HOST 172.20.0.10 arosbox.lan arosbox
    HOST 172.20.0.1 gateway
    DOMAIN lan
    NAMESERVER 192.168.0.1
    

The db directory itself can reside anywhere, you set its path in the ENVARC:AROSTCP/Config file, I advice you to copy the db files in the (created) ENVARC:AROSTCP/db directory, that way the Config file could be:

ENV:AROSTCP/db

Now make AROSTCP start at boot with the word "True" in ENVARC:AROSTCP/Autorun (Create the file if not exists in CLI window with a command echo "True" >sys:AROSTCP/Autorun) Edit the SYS:System/Network/AROSTCP/S/Package-Startup:

; $VER: AROSTCP-PackageStartup 1.0 (01/08/06)
; AROSTCP-PackageStartup (c) The AROS Dev Team.
;
Path "C" "S" ADD QUIET

If not exists T:Syslog
    makedir T:Syslog
Endif

If not exists EMU:
    if $AROSTCP/AutoRun eq "True"
    C:execute S/startnet
    EndIf
EndIf

The SYS:System/Network/AROSTCP/S/Startnet file should be something like:

; $VER: AROSTCP-startnet 1.0 (01/08/06)
; AROSTCP-startnet (c) The AROS Dev Team.
;
Run <NIL: >NIL: AROSTCP
WaitForPort AROSTCP
If NOT Warn
    run >NIL: route add default gateway
Else
; echo "Wait for Stack Failed"
EndIf

Next boot, test it with:

ifconfig -a

The output should be something like this:

lo0: flags=8<LOOPBACK> mtu 1536
        inet 0.0.0.0 netmask 0x0
eth0: flags=863<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,SIMPLEX> mtu 1500
        address: 52:54:00:12:34:56
        inet 172.20.0.10 netmask 0xff000000 broadcast 172.255.255.255

If you can see that eth0 string then your interface is up. You can test it by launching those commands:

AROS:>ping 172.20.0.1
PING 172.20.0.1 (172.20.0.1): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 172.20.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=xx ms
64 bytes from 172.20.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=xx ms
64 bytes from 172.20.0.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=xx ms

--- 172.20.0.1 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packets loss
round trip min/avg/max = x/xx/xx ms

Output like this means that our interface packets reached the gateway with 172.20.0.1 address. If you got Host unreachable errors, then check your AROSTCP settings and VM options.

On Windows: To make external network accessible to VM you must set up routing from our virtual net to a real one, such as make a host system a router. For Linux this has been done already.

You can test it even further by pinging other hosts and try using some networking applications which you can find on Archives.aros-exec.org, like ftp and AIRCos. If you use an FTP program with your FTP server, remember it can work only with passive ftp servers, and set up your server to this mode.

Net on QEMU/Windows

Setting QEMU to run on Windows is relatively harder to that of Linux. First, make sure you have set your Firewall to learning mode (or prepare it to receive new rules) or completely disable it. Firewall can block transfers to VM.

There are two ways to use network with QEMU on Windows. The first and the more proven is to use the tap interface. To use it you must download the OpenVPN 2.0 package for Windows (Windows 2k/XP only). After you install it, you will get an extra network connection in disconnected state. Rename it to, say, "eth0". Then go to the eth0 connection properties and set an IP address in the properties of TCP-IP protocol. The IP address you set has to be in a different subnet from your base IP (Example: If your net has IP addresses like 192.168.0.x, then set, say, 10.0.2.2) and a 255.255.255.0 netmask. Reboot. Then replace the starting line options in QEMU (or add them if there were none), to read -net nic -net tap,ifname=eth0. Then set an AROS side as it was described above for user mode networking. Note that you will need the administrator privileges to install the OpenVPN TAP adaptor.

The second option is to use a user-mode networking stack which is launched by default (or using the -net nic -net user switches, which is the default now). For the 0.8 or newer QEMU versions, use the following options. Setting the AROS side is similar to that in Linux, but you will need to use the following IP addresses to set up and test: 10.0.2.16 for AROS machine IP (instead of 172.20.0.10), 10.0.2.2 for gateway (instead of 172.20.0.1). This mode can work even without giving administrating privileges to user, but can make some applications on AROS refuse to work properly (such as FTP-client).

There's some guides available on how to set-up the QEMU networking in Windows:

Net on VMWare

The network on the VMWare side is relatively easy to set up. All you need is to add the NIC to configuration of your VM and assign the IP to the new network connection, associated with that card. Other using notes is the same as with QEMU above, except for the adapter type in SYS:System/Network/AROSTCP/db/interfaces file

eth0 DEV=DEVS:networks/pcnet32.device UNIT=0 IP=10.0.2.2 UP

Net on a real PC

On a real PC you will need to do all you have to do for any OS - prepare the hardware to connect to AROS box - cables, hub and other. Then you must set up the AROS side similar to shown above, replacing the IP addresses to those acceptable in your LAN for AROS-box IP, gateway and DNS. Set up the networking card in the interfaces file by uncommenting the string corresponding to your card.

To be finished...

Setting Up The Sound

Currently there's not much support for sound in AROS. For one thing, at the moment there's no working driver for a virtual machine's implementation of sound cards (usually sb16/es) so the way to try to get sound would be to use AROS-native on pc with a real SB Live/Audigy card. The AC97-compliant codecs are supported as well.

AHI sound in AROS also supports no sound (VOID) and disk writing options.

To be written by someone...

Is that all the User's Information in this guide?

This chapter should have told you how to get, install and use AROS. After having tried running every program in the directories C, Demos, Utilities, Tools, Games, etc., you might wonder if that is all. No, you can find some applications at http://archives.aros-exec.org.

If you feel that this guide did not provide enough information about compiling, installing, Subversion, the shell, etc., know that there are reasons for that. First, there is already much information available, and it would be rather pointless to just that in this document. Second, such information is rather specific, as one of the readers might be interested in compiling the source code, others might want to know all about the Amiga shell, etc. So to keep this guide readable, it only points to places where you can find such information, instead of providing it here. It's up to the reader to decide whether such information would be of interest.


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