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Často kladené otázky (FAQ)

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Běžné otázky

Můžu se na něco zeptat?

Samozřejmě můžeš. Přejdi prosím na AROS-Exec fórum, pročti si vlákna a zeptej se na co chceš. Tyto FAQ budou postupně aktualizovány podle otázek uživatelů na fóru, fórum je však více aktuální.

Co je vlastně AROS?

Přečti si prosím úvod.

Jaký je právní stav AROSu?

Evropské právo říká, že je legalní používat techniky zpětného dešifrování k získání interoperability. A také říká, že je nelegální šířit znalosti získané těmito technikami. To v podstatě znamená, že můžeš disasemblovat jakýkoli software, aby si napsal jiný, který je kompatibilní (například by bylo legální disasemblovat Word a napsat program, který zkonvertuje Word documenty do ASCII textu).

Existují samozřejmě určitá omezení: nesmíš disasemblovat software, pokud by informace získané tímto procesem šly získat i jiným způsobem. Také nesmíš ostatním řici, co si se dověděl. Kniha jako např. "Windows zevnitř" je proto nezákonná nebo alespoň na hranici zákona.

Vzhledem k tomu, že se vyhýbáme disasemblovacím technikám a místo toho používáme běžně dostupné znalosti (například programové manuály), které nespadají pod žádný NDA (non-disclosure agreement - závazek mlčenlivosti), neplatí výše uvedené přímo pro AROS. Co je tady důležité, je záměr zákona: je legální psát sotware, který je kompatibilní s jiným softwarem. Takže věříme, že je AROS chráněn zákonem.

Patenty a hlavičkové soubory jsou však dalším problémem. V Evropě můžeme používat patentované algoritmy, protože evropské právo nedovoluje patenty na algoritmy. Nicméně kód, který používá algoritmy patentované v USA, by nemohl být dodáván do USA. Jako příklady patentovaných algoritmů v AmigaOS uveďme "screen dragging" a specifický způsob funkce menu. Proto se vyhýbáme implementování těchto funkcí zcela stejným způsobem. Na druhou stranu však musí být hlavičkové soubory kompatibilní, ale odlišné od originálu, jak je to jen možné.

Abychom se vyhli problémům, požádali jsme o oficiální souhlas od Amiga Inc. Oni naši snahu vidí pozitivně, ale nejsou si jisti s právními důsledky. Podotýkáme, že Amiga Inc nám dosud neposlala žádný dopis "cease and desist", což bereme jako pozitivní znamení. Bohužel ještě nedošlo k právní dohodě, a to bez ohledu na dobré úmysly obou stran.

Proč vám jde pouze o kompatibilitu s 3.1?

Hodně se diskutovalo o napsání moderního operačního systému s vlastnostmi AmigaOS. Z dobrého důvodu bylo od toho upuštěno. Zaprvé, všichni se shodují, že současná AmigaOS by mohla být vylepšena, ale nikdo neví, jak to udělat, nebo se dokonce shodují na tom, co má být vylepšeno nebo co je důležité. Někteří například chtějí ochranu paměti, ale nechtějí za to platit (přepsání dostupného softwaru a zmenšení rychlosti).

In the end, the discussions ended in either flame wars or reiteration of the same old arguments over and over again. So we decided to start with something we know how to handle. Then, when we have the experience to see what is possible or not, we decide on improvements.

We also want to be binary compatible with the original AmigaOS on Amiga. The reason for this is just that a new OS without any programs which run on it has no chance to survive. Therefore we try to make the shift from the original OS to our new one as painless as possible (but not to the extent that we can't improve AROS afterwards). As usual, everything has its price and we try to decide carefully what that price might be and if we and everyone else will be willing to pay it.

Můžete implementovat funkci XYZ?

Ne, protože:

  1. If it was really important, it would be in the original OS. :-)
  2. Why don't you do it yourself and send a patch to us?

The reason for this attitude is that there are plenty of people around who think that their feature is the most important and that AROS has no future if that feature is not built in right away. Our position is that AmigaOS, which AROS aims to implement, can do everything a modern OS should do. We see that there are areas where AmigaOS could be enhanced, but if we do that, who would write the rest of the OS? In the end, we would have lots of nice improvements to the original AmigaOS which would break most of the available software but be worth nothing, because the rest of the OS would be missing.

Therefore, we decided to block every attempt to implement major new features in the OS until it is more or less completed. We are getting quite close to that goal now, and there have been a couple of innovations implemented in AROS that aren't available in AmigaOS.

Jak je AROS kompatibilní s AmigaOS?

Very compatible. We expect that AROS will run existing software on the Amiga without problems. On other hardware, the existing software must be recompiled. We will offer a preprocessor which you can use on your code which will change any code that might break with AROS and/or warn you about such code.

Porting programs from AmigaOS to AROS is currently mostly a matter of a simple recompilation, with the occasional tweak here and there. There are of course programs for which this is not true, but it holds for most modern ones.

Pro jaké hardwarové platformy je AROS dostupný?

Currently AROS is available in a quite usable state as native and hosted (under Linux, and FreeBSD) for the i386 architecture (i.e. IBM PC AT compatible clones). There are ports under way at varying degrees of completeness to SUN SPARC (hosted under Solaris) and Palm compatible handhelds (native).

Chystá se port AROSu pro PPC?

There is currently an effort under way to port AROS to PPC, initially hosted under Linux.

Proč používáte Linux a X11?

We use Linux and X11 to speed up development. For example, if you implement a new function to open a window you can simply write that single function and don't have to write hundreds of other functions in layers.library, graphics.library, a slew of device drivers and the rest that that function might need to use.

The goal for AROS is of course to be independent of Linux and X11 (but it would still be able to run on them if people really wanted to), and that is slowly becoming a reality with the native versions of AROS. We still need to use Linux for development though, since some development tools haven't been ported to AROS yet.

Jak zajistíte přenositelnost AROSu?

One of the major new features in AROS compared to AmigaOS is the HIDD (Hardware Independent Device Drivers) system, which will allow us to port AROS to different hardware quite easily. Basically, the core OS libraries do not hit the hardware directly but instead go through the HIDDs, which are coded using an object oriented system that makes it easy to replace HIDDs and reuse code.

Proč si myslíte, že to AROS zvládne?

We hear all the day from a lot of people that AROS won't make it. Most of them either don't know what we are doing or they think the Amiga is already dead. After we explained what we do to the former, most agree that it is possible. The latter make more problems. Well, is Amiga dead right now? Those who are still using their Amigas will probably tell you that it isn't. Did your A500 or A4000 blow up when Commodore went bankrupt? Did it blow up when Amiga Technologies did?

The fact is that there is quite little new software developed for the Amiga (although Aminet still chugs along quite nicely) and that hardware is also developed at a lower speed (but the most amazing gadgets seem appear right now). The Amiga community (which is still alive) seems to be sitting and waiting. And if someone releases a product which is a bit like the Amiga back in 1984, then that machine will boom again. And who knows, maybe you will get a CD along with the machine labeled "AROS". :-)

Co mám dělat, když AROS nejde sestavit?

Please post a message with details (for example, the error messages you get) on the Help forum at AROS-Exec or become a developer and subscribe to the AROS Developer list and post it there, and someone will try to help you.

Bude mít AROS ochranu paměti, SVM, RT, ...?

Several hundred Amiga experts (that's what they thought of themselves at least) tried for three years to find a way to implement memory protection (MP) for AmigaOS. They failed. You should take it as a fact that the normal AmigaOS will never have MP like Unix or Windows NT.

But all is not lost. There are plans to integrate a variant of MP into AROS which will allows protection of at least new programs which know about it. Some efforts in this area look really promising. Also, is it really a problem if your machine crashes? Let me explain, before you nail me to a tree. :-) The problem is not that the machine crashes, but rather:

  1. You have no good idea why it crashed. Basically, you end up having to poke with a 100ft pole into a swamp with a thick fog.
  2. You lose your work. Rebooting the machine is really no issue.

What we could try to construct is a system which will at least alert if something dubious is happening and which can tell you in great detail what was happening when the machine crashed and which will allow you to save your work and then crash. There will also be a means to check what has been saved so you can be sure that you don't continue with corrupted data.

The same thing goes for SVM (swappable virtual memory), RT (resource tracking) and SMP (symmetric multiprocessing). We are currently planning how to implement them, making sure that adding these features will be painless. However, they do not have the highest priority right now. Very basic RT has been added, though.

Mohu se stát beta testerem?

Sure, no problem. In fact, we want as many beta testers as possible, so everyone is welcome! We don't keep a list of beta testers though, so all you have to do is to download AROS, test whatever you want and send us a report.

Jaký je vztah mezi AROSem a UAE?

UAE is an Amiga emulator, and as such has somewhat different goals than AROS. UAE wants to be binary compatible even for games and hardware hitting code, while AROS wants to have native applications. Therefore AROS is much faster than UAE, but you can run more software under UAE.

We are in loose contact with the author of UAE and there is a good chance that code for UAE will appear in AROS and vice versa. For example, the UAE developers are interested in the source for the OS because UAE could run some applications much faster if some or all OS functions could be replaced with native code. On the other hand, AROS could benefit from having an integrated Amiga emulation.

Since most programs won't be available on AROS from the start, Fabio Alemagna has ported UAE to AROS so you can run old programs at least in an emulation box.

Also available in Contrib is E-UAE, which is UAE improved by some features from WinUAE.

Jaký je vztah mezi AROSem a Haage & Partner?

Haage & Partner used parts of AROS in AmigaOS 3.5 and 3.9, for example the Colorwheel and Gradientslider gadgets and the SetENV command. This means that in a way, AROS has become part of the official AmigaOS. This does not imply that there is any formal relation between AROS and Haage & Partner. AROS is an open source project, and anyone can use our code in their own projects provided they follow the license.

Jaký je vztah mezi AROSem a MorphOS?

The relationship between AROS and MorphOS is basically the same as between AROS and Haage & Partner. MorphOS uses parts of AROS to speed up their development effort; under the terms of our license. As with Haage & Partner, this is good for both the teams, since the MorphOS team gets a boost to their development from AROS and AROS gets good improvements to our source code from the MorphOS team. There is no formal relation between AROS and MorphOS; this is simply how open source development works.

Jaké programovací jazyky jsou k dispozici?

Most development for AROS is done using ANSI C by crosscompiling the sources under a different OS, e.g. Linux or FreeBSD. Fabio Alemagna has completed an initial port of GCC to i386 native. However, it is not currently on the ISO or integrated into the build system.

The languages that are available natively are Python, Regina, Lua, Hollywood and False:

  • Python is a scripting language which has become quite popular, because of its nice design and features (object-oriented programming, module system, many useful modules included, clean syntax, ...). A separate project has been started for the AROS port and can be found at http://pyaros.sourceforge.net/.
  • Regina is a portable ANSI compliant REXX interpreter. The goal for the AROS port is to be compatible with the ARexx interpreter for the classic AmigaOS.
  • Lua is a powerful, fast, light-weight, embeddable scripting language. The AROS port has been extented by two modules: siamiga and zulu. The first one has some simple graphics commands, the latter is an interface to Zune.
  • Hollywood is a commercial programming language for multimedia applications including games. The CD-ROM contains a version for i386-aros.
  • False can be classified as an exotic language, so it will most likely not be used for serious development, although it can be lots of fun. :-)

Proč není v AROSu žádný m68k emulátor?

To make old Amiga programs run on AROS, we have ported UAE to AROS. AROS's version of UAE will probably be a bit faster than other versions UAE since AROS needs less resources than other operating systems (which means UAE will get more CPU time), and we'll try to patch the Kickstart ROM in UAE to call AROS functions which will give another small improvement. Of course, this only applies to the native flavors of AROS and not the hosted flavors.

But why don't we simply implement a virtual m68k CPU to run software directly on AROS? Well, the problem here is that m68k software expects the data to be in big endian format while AROS also runs on little endian CPUs. The problem here is that the little endian routines in the AROS core would have to work with the big endian data in the emulation. Automatic conversion seems to be impossible (just an example: there is a field in a structure in the AmigaOS which sometimes contains one ULONG and sometimes two WORDs) because we cannot tell how a couple of bytes in RAM are encoded.

Chystá se AROS Kickstart ROM?

There might be, if someone creates a native Amiga port of AROS and does all the other work needed to create a Kickstart ROM. Currently, no one has applied for the job.

Otázky k softwaru

How do I access AROS's disk images from UAE?

The floppy disk image can be mounted as a hardfile and then used as a 1.4 MB harddisk within UAE. After you have put the files you want on the hardfile disk image (or whatever you wanted to do), you can write it to a floppy.

The geometry of the hardfile is as follows:

Sectors    = 32
Surfaces   = 1
Reserved   = 2
Block Size = 90

How do I access AROS's disk images from hosted flavors of AROS?

Copy the disk image to the DiskImages directory in AROS (SYS:DiskImages, e.g. bin/linux-i386/AROS/DiskImages) and rename it to "Unit0". After starting AROS, you can mount the disk image with:

> mount AFD0:

Co je to Zune?

In case you read on this site about Zune, it's simply an open-source reimplementation of MUI, which is a powerful (as in user- and developer-friendly) object-oriented shareware GUI toolkit and de-facto standard on AmigaOS. Zune is the preferred GUI toolkit to develop native AROS applications. As for the name itself, it means nothing, but sounds good.

How can I restore my Prefs to defaults?

In AROS, open CLI shell, go to Envarc: and delete relevant files for the pref you want to restore.

What is the Graphical and other memory in Wanderer?

This memory division is mostly a relic from Amiga past, when graphical memory was application memory before you added some other, called FAST RAM, a memory where applications ended, while the graphics, sounds and some system structures were still in graphic memory.

In AROS-hosted, there isn't such kind of memory as Other (FAST), but only GFX, when on Native AROS, GFX can have a max of 16MB, although it wouldn't reflect the state of the graphic adapter memory... It has no relation to the amount of memory on your graphics card.

The long-winded answer Graphics memory in i386-native signifies the lower 16MB of memory in the system. That lower 16MB is the area where ISA cards can do DMA. Allocating memory with MEMF_DMA or MEMF_CHIP will end up there, the rest in the other (fast) memory.

Use C:Avail HUMAN command for memory info.

What do the Wanderer Snapshot <all/window> action actually do?

This command remembers icon's placement of all (or one) windows.

How do I change the screensaver/background?

At the moment the only way to change screensaver is to write your own one. Blanker commodity could be tuned with Exchange, but it is able to do only "starfield" with given amount of stars. Background of Wanderer is set by Pref tool Prefs/Wanderer. Background of Zune Windows is set by Zune prefs Prefs/Zune. You can also set your chosen application preferences by using the Zune <application> command.

I've launched AROS-hosted but it's failed

If you are root and AROS crashes at launch, do "xhost +" before "sudo && ./aros -m 20". You must also give it some memory with -m option as shown. The space between "-m" and the value is important. Also don't forget about BackingStore option in section Device of your xorg.conf.

What are the command line options for AROS-hosted executable?

You can get a list of them by running ./aros -h command.

How can I make windows refresh from black on AROS-hosted?

You must supply the following string (as is!) to the "Device" section of your /etc/X11/xorg.conf (or XFree.conf):

Option  "BackingStore"

See Installation for details.

What are the AROS-native kernel options used in GRUB line?

Here's some:

nofdc           - Disables the floppy driver completely.
noclick         - Disables the floppy disk change detection (and clicking)
ATA=32bit       - Enables 32-bit I/O in the hdd driver (safe)
forcedma        - Forces DMA to be active in the hdd driver (should be safe, but
                  might not be)
gfx=<hidd name> - Use the named HIDD as the gfx driver
lib=<name>      - Load and initiate the named library/HIDD

Please note that they are case-sensitive.

How can I transfer files to virtual machine with AROS?

First and simplest way is to put files to the ISO image and and connect it to VM. There's a lot of programs able to create/edit ISO's like UltraISO, WinImage, or mkisofs. Second, you can set up the network in AROS and FTP server on your host machine. Then you can use FTP client for AROS to transfer files (look for MarranoFTP). This is tricky enough to stop at this point. User documentation contains a chapter about networking, go for it. Also, now there`s a promising utility (AFS Util), allowing to read (no write support yet) files from AROS AFFS/OFS disks and floppies.

Compilation Errors

Q: I`ve compiled AROS with gcc4 but found that compiled AROS-hosted segfaults with -m > 20 and if I compile AROS-native it does not start (black screen)

A: Add -fno-strict-aliasing to scripts/aros-gcc.in and try to recompile.

Is it possible to make a DOS script that automatically runs when a package is installed?

This script should do some assigns and add string to the PATH variable.

1) Create a sub-directory S and add a file with name 'Package-Startup' with the DOS commands to it.

2) Create a variable in the envarc:sys/packages file which contains the path to the S directory of your package.

Example directory layout:

sys:Extras/myappdir
sys:Extras/myappdir/S
sys:Extras/myappdir/S/Package-Startup

The variable in envarc:sys/packages could have the name 'myapp' (name doesn't matter), the content would then be 'sys:extras/myappdir'

The Package-Startup script would then be called by the startup-sequence.

How do I clear the shell window? How do I set it permanently?

Type this command in the shell:

Echo "*E[0;0H*E[J* "

You can edit your S:Shell-Startup and insert this line somewhere, so you'll have a new "Cls" command:

Alias Cls "Echo *"*E[0;0H*E[J*" "

BTW: here is my new S:Shell-Startup modified to start the shell in black and with a modified prompt:

Alias Edit SYS:Tools/Editor
Alias Cls "Echo *"*E[0;0H*E[J*" "
Echo "*e[>1m*e[32;41m*e[0;0H*e[J"
Prompt "*n*e[>1m*e[33;41m*e[1m%N/%R - *e[30;41m%S>*e[0m*e[32;41m "
date

More about printer escape sequences:

Esc[0m
Standard Set

Esc[1m and Esc[22m
Bold

Esc[3m and Esc[23m
Italics

Esc[4m and Esc[24m
Underline

Esc[30m to Esc[39m
Set Front Color

Esc[40m to Esc[49m
Set Background Color

Values meanings:

30 grey char -- 40 grey cell -- >0 grey background ---- 0 all attributes off
31 black char - 41 black cell - >1 black background --- 1 boldface
32 white char - 42 white cell - >2 white background --- 2 faint
33 blue char -- 43 blue cell -- >3 blue background ---- 3 italic
34 grey char -- 44 grey cell -- >4 grey background ---- 4 underscore
35 black char - 45 black cell - >5 black background --- 7 reverse video
36 white char - 46 white cell - >6 white background --- 8 invisible
37 blue char -- 47 blue cell -- >7 blue background

The codes can be combined by separating them with a semicolon.

How do I launch AROS-hosted in fullscreen?

Call "export AROS_X11_FULLSCREEN=1" in a shell. Start AROS and change the screen resolution in the screenmode preferences. Quit AROS and start it again.

How to make 2-state AROS Icons?

AROS icons are actually renamed PNG files. But if you want icons in two states (normal/selected) use this command:

join img_1.png img_2.png TO img.info

How to mount an ISO image on AROS? And can I update my nightly build this way?

  • Get the ISO into AROS (by wget or else way)

  • Copy the ISO into sys:DiskImages (drawer must be created if it isn`t exist).

  • Rename ISO to Unit0 in that dir.

  • You must add this to your Devs:Mountlist

    ISO:
    FileSystem = cdrom.handler
    Device = fdsk.device
    Unit = 0
    
  • Then mount ISO: You can copy anything from ISO:. Additionally, you can create a script to update your nightly build like this:

    copy ISO:boot/aros-pc-i386.gz sys:boot/
    copy ISO:C sys:C all quiet
    copy ISO:Classes sys:Classes all quiet
    copy ISO:Demos sys:Demos all quiet
    

And so on for each directory except Prefs, Extras:Networking/Stacks, and devs:mountlist itself. Prefs have to be kept if you want it. Also you can set AROSTcp to keep its settings in separate directory.

If you want to write all over, just do:

copy ISO:C sys:C all quiet newer

How to unmount a volume?

Launch these two commands in CLI:

assign DOSVOLUME: dismount
assign DOSVOLUME: remove

where DOSVOLUME is DH0:, DF0:, etc

How to mount a FAT Floppy with the FAT.handler?

Create a mountfile (text file) with the 3 magic lines:

device = trackdisk.device
filesystem = fat.handler
unit = 0
  • Call it somehow, PC0 for example. Set this file default tool to c:mount in properties (or put mountfile to devs:dosdrivers or sys:storage/dosdrivers)
  • Double click on it.
  • Insert a FAT formatted floppy.
  • See the icon appearing on Wanderer`s desktop.

How to mount a real HD FAT partition with the FAT.handler?

First you`d need to read the drive`s geometry and write down some values. You can use HDToolbox or Linux fdisk for that. The BlocksPerTrack value is taken from the sectors/track value. Note that it has absolutely nothing to do with the physical disk geometry - FAT only uses it as a multiplier. If you get the Cylinders e.g. from HDToolbox or using the Linux fdisk like this:

sudo fdisk -u -l /dev/hda,

Then you'll need to set BlocksPerTrack=63. To ensure you have numbers in cylinders look for Units=Cylinders in output. If you got fdisk output in sectors (Units=sectors), set BlocksPerTrack=1.

LowCyl and HighCyl are partition`s cylinders like:

mark@ubuntu:~$ sudo fdisk -l -u /dev/hda
...
/dev/hda1 * 63 20980889 10490413+ c W95 FAT32 (LBA)

So, LowCyl is 63, and HighCyl is 20980889, blockspertrack=1

Create a mountfile (text file) with these lines:

device = ata.device
filesystem = fat.handler,
Unit = 0

BlocksPerTrack = 1
LowCyl = 63
HighCyl = 20980889
Blocksize=512
  • Call it somehow, FAT0 for example
  • Set this file`s default tool to c:mount in properties (or put mountfile to devs:dosdrivers or sys:storage/dosdrivers)
  • Double click on it
  • See the icon appearing on Wanderer`s desktop

Note: Formula for counting the blocks: block = ((highcyl - lowcyl) x surfaces + head) x blockspertrack + sec

Otázky k hardwaru

Kde mohu najít seznam hardwaru kompatibilního s AROSem?

Seznam najdeš na stránce AROS Wiki. Tam se mohou nacházet i další seznamy od uživatelů AROSu.

Proč nemůže AROS bootovat z jednotky nastavené na IDE kanálu jako SLAVE?

Takže, AROS by měl bootovat, pokud je jednotka SLAVE, ale POUZE tehdy, je-li na IDE i jednotka MASTER. Tak to má být podle IDE specifikace a AROS se jí drží.

Můj systém se zastaví s červeným kurzorem na obrazovce nebo s prázdnou obrazovkou

Jedním z důvodů může být použití sériové myši (ty zatím nejsou podporovány). V tuto chvíli musíš s AROSem používat PS/2 myš. Dalším důvodem může být výběr grafického režimu v bootovacím menu, který tvůj hardware nepodporuje. Restartuj počítač a zkus jiný režim.


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